- Medical Abbreviations & Terms
- A-E Medical Abbreviation
- F-J Medical Abbreviation
- K-O Medical Abbreviation
- P-T Medical Abbreviation
- U-Z Medical Abbreviation
What should I know about medical abbreviations? What do they mean?
Have you ever wondered why you can't read the doctor's note or the letters and numbers on a prescription? Health care professionals often quickly scribble notes with important medical information that they would like a patient to reference in regard to the type of current, or recently diagnosed disease, syndrome, or other health condition(s). Have you ever seen the doctor's notes in your medical record and found peculiar abbreviations and jargon? Do you wonder what the letters and numbers mean on your prescriptions or other items related to a disease, syndrome, or disorder?
Doctors and other health care professionals commonly use a list of abbreviations, acronyms, and other medical terminology as a reference to rapidly search and accurately record information about, and give instructions to their patients. There is no standard or approved list used by health care professionals to search for medical acronyms or abbreviations. Therefore, it is important to understand the context in which the abbreviation or term has been used.
Abbreviations, acronyms, and medical terminology are used for many conditions, and for instructions on medication prescribed by your doctor. This is a shortlist of common abbreviations you may have seen on a doctor's notepad; a prescription drug package or bottle; lab or other test results; or in your doctor's notes.
- ALL: Acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
- AMI: Acute myocardial infarction (heart attack)
- B-ALL: B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia
- FSH: Follicle-stimulating hormone. A blood test for follicle-stimulating hormone is used to evaluate fertility in women.
- HAPE: High altitude pulmonary edema
- HPS: Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. A type of contagious, infectious disease is transmitted by rats infected with the virus.
- IBS: Irritable bowel syndrome (A medical disease that involves the gastrointestinal tract.)
- IDDM: Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Type 1 diabetes.
- MDS: Myelodysplastic syndrome
- NBCCS: Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome
- PE: Pulmonary embolism. A type of blood clot in the lungs.
- SIDS: Sudden infant death syndrome
- TSH: Thyroid-stimulating hormone. A blood test for TSH is used to diagnose thyroid disease.
Use this list as a resource for common abbreviations and acronyms used in the health care community, to quickly search and answer your questions about those letters and numbers of a drug your doctor has prescribed to you, or other notes from your doctor or other medical professionals.
A - Medical abbreviations
- a.c.: Before meals. As in taking medicine before meals.
- a/g ratio: Albumin to globulin ratio.
- ACL: Anterior cruciate ligament. ACL injuries are one of the most common ligament injuries to the knee. The ACL can be sprained or completely torn from trauma and/or degeneration.
- Ad lib: At liberty. For example, a patient may be permitted to move out of bed freely and orders would, therefore, be for activities to be ad lib.
- AFR: Acute renal failure
- ADHD: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
- ADR: Adverse drug reaction. If a patient is taking a prescription drug to treat high blood pressure disease
- AIDS: Acquired immune deficiency syndrome
- AKA: Above the knee amputation.
- Anuric: Not producing urine. A person who is anuric is often critical and may require dialysis.
- ANED: Alive no evidence of disease. The patient arrived in the ER alive with no evidence of disease.
- ADH: Antidiuretic hormone
- ARDS: Acute respiratory distress syndrome.
- ARF: Acute renal (kidney) failure
- ASCVD: Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. A form of heart disease.
B - Medical abbreviations
- b.i.d.: Twice daily. As in taking medicine twice daily.
- bld: Blood. Blood was visible on the patient’s scalp.
- Bandemia: Slang for an elevated level of band forms of white blood cells.
- Bibasilar: At the bases of both lungs. For example, someone with pneumonia in both lungs might have abnormal bibasilar breath sounds.
- BKA: Below the knee amputation.
- BMP: Basic metabolic panel. Electrolytes (potassium, sodium, carbon dioxide, and chloride) and creatinine and glucose.
- BP: Blood pressure. Blood pressure is recorded as part of the physical examination. It is one of the "vital signs."
- BPD: Borderline personality disorder. A personality disorder.
- BSO: Bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. A BSO is the removal of both of the ovaries and adjacent Fallopian tubes and often is performed as part of a total abdominal hysterectomy.
C - Medical abbreviations
- C&S: Culture and sensitivity, performed to detect infection.
- C/O: Complaint of. The patient's expressed concern.
- cap: Capsule.
- Ca: Cancer; carcinoma. For example, a patient who underwent treatment for cancer should assure that they are eating and drinking enough fluids daily, both during and after treatment.
- CABG. Coronary artery bypass graft. A surgery involving the heart.
- CBC: Complete blood count.
- CC: Chief complaint. The patient's main concern.
- CDE: Complete dental (oral) evaluation.
- cc: Cubic centimeters. For example, the amount of fluid removed from the body is recorded in ccs.
- Chem panel: Chemistry panel. A comprehensive screening blood test that indicates the status of the liver, kidneys, and electrolytes.
- CPAP: Continuous positive airway pressure. Treatment for sleep apnea.
- COPD: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
- CT: Chemotherapy. A type of treatment therapy for cancer.
- CVA: Cerebrovascular accident (Stroke).
D - Medical abbreviations
- D/C or DC: Discontinue or discharge. For example, a doctor will D/C a drug. Alternatively, the doctor might DC a patient from the hospital.
- DCIS: Ductal Carcinoma In Situ. A type of breast cancer. The patient is receiving treatment for Ductal Carcinoma In Situ.
- DDX: Differential diagnosis. A variety of diagnostic possibilities are being considered to diagnose the type of cancer present in the patient.
- DJD: Degenerative joint disease. Another term for osteoarthritis.
- DM: Diabetes mellitus.
- DNC, D&C, or D and C: Dilation and curettage. Widening the cervix and scrapping with a curette for the purpose of removing tissue lining the inner surface of the womb (uterus).
- DNR: Do not resuscitate. This is a specific order not to revive a patient artificially if they succumb to illness. If a patient is given a DNR order, they are not resuscitated if they are near death and no code blue is called.
- DOE: Dyspnea on exertion. Shortness of breath with activity.
- DTR: Deep tendon reflexes. These are reflexes that the doctor tests by banging on the tendons with a rubber hammer.
- DVT: Deep venous thrombosis (blood clot in a large vein).
E - Medical abbreviations
F - Medical abbreviations
- FX: Fracture.
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G - Medical abbreviations
- g: gram, a unit of weight. The cream is available in both 30 and 60-gram tubes.
- GOMER: Slang for "get out of my emergency room."
- GvHD: Graft vs. host disease. It is complicated by the syndromes of acute and chronic graft-vs-host disease (GVHD).
- gtt: Drops.
H - Medical abbreviations
- H&H: Hemoglobin and hematocrit. When the H & H is low, anemia is present. The H&H can be elevated in persons who have lung disease from long term smoking or from disease, such as polycythemia rubra vera.
- H&P: History and physical examination.
- h.s.: At bedtime. As in taking medicine at bedtime.
- H/O or h/o: History of. A past event that occurred.
- HA: Headache.
- HRT: Hormone replacement or hormone replacement therapy.
- HTN: Hypertension.
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I - Medical abbreviations
- I&D: Incision and drainage.
- IBD: Inflammatory bowel disease. A name for two disorders of the gastrointestinal (BI) tract, Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis
- ICD: Implantable cardioverter defibrillator
- ICU: Intensive care unit. The patient was moved to the intensive care unit.
- IM: Intramuscular. This is a typical notation when noting or ordering an injection (shot) given into a muscle, such as with B12 for pernicious anemia.
- IMP: Impression. This is the summary conclusion of the patient's condition by the healthcare professional at that particular date and time.
- ITU: Intensive therapy unit
- in vitro: In the laboratory
- in vivo: In the body
- IPF: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. A type of lung disease.
- IU: International units.
K - Medical abbreviations
L - Medical abbreviations
- LCIS: Lobular Carcinoma In Situ. A type of cancer of the breast. The patient is receiving treatment for Lobular Carcinoma In Situ.
- LBP: Low back pain. LBP is one of most common medical complaints.
- LLQ: Left lower quadrant. Diverticulitis pain is often in the LLQ of the abdomen.
- LUQ: Left upper quadrant. The spleen is located in the LUQ of the abdomen.
- Lytes: Electrolytes (potassium, sodium, carbon dioxide, and chloride).
M - Medical abbreviations
N - Medical abbreviations
- N/V: Nausea or vomiting.
- Na: Sodium. An essential electrolyte is frequently monitored regularly in intensive care.
- NCP: Nursing care plan
- NPO: Nothing by mouth. For example, if a patient was about to undergo a surgical operation requiring general anesthesia, they may be required to avoid food or beverage prior to the procedure.
- NSR: Normal sinus rhythm of the heart
P - Medical abbreviations
- P: Pulse. Pulse is recorded as part of the physical examination. It is one of the "vital signs."
- p¯: After meals. As intake two tablets after meals.
- p.o.: By mouth. From the Latin terminology per os.
- p.r.n.: As needed. So that it is not always done, but done only when the situation calls for it (for example, taking pain medication only when having pain and not without pain).
- PCL: Posterior cruciate ligament.
- PD: Progressive disease. Patients at risk of developing progressive disease of the kidneys include those with proteinuria or hematuria.
PERRLA: Pupils equal, round, and reactive to light and accommodation.
PFT: Pulmonary function test. A test to evaluate how well the lungs are functioning.
- PERRLA: Pupils equal, round, and reactive to light and accommodation.
- Plt: Platelets, one of the blood-forming elements along with the white and red blood cells.
- PMI: Point of the maximum impulse of the heart when felt during the examination, as in beats against the chest.
- PMS: Premenstrual syndrome
- PT: Physical therapy
- PTH: Parathyroid hormone
- PTSD: Post-traumatic stress syndrome
- PUD: Peptic ulcer disease. A type of ulcer of the stomach.
Q - Medical abbreviations
- q.d.: Each day. As in taking medicine daily.
- q.i.d.: Four times daily. As in taking a medicine four times daily.
- q2h: Every 2 hours. As in taking a medicine every 2 hours.
- q3h: Every 3 hours. As in taking a medicine every 3 hours.
- qAM: Each morning. As in taking medicine each morning.
- qhs: At each bedtime. As in taking medicine each bedtime.
- qod: Every other day. As in taking medicine every other day.
- qPM: Each evening. As in taking medicine each evening.
R - Medical abbreviations
- RA: Rheumatoid arthritis. A type of joint disease.
- RDS: Respiratory distress syndrome
- R/O: Rule out. Doctors frequently will rule out various possible diagnoses when figuring out the correct diagnosis.
- REB: Rebound, as in rebound tenderness of the abdomen when pushed in and then released.
- RLQ: Right lower quadrant. The appendix is located in the RLQ of the abdomen.
- ROS: Review of systems. An overall review concerns relating to the organ systems, such as the respiratory, cardiovascular, and neurologic systems.
- RUQ: Right upper quadrant. The liver is located in the RUQ of the abdomen.
S - Medical abbreviations
- s/p: Status post. For example, a person who had a knee operation would be s/p a knee operation.
- SAD: Season affective disorder. A type of depression that occurs during the winter months when there is little light.
- SOB: Shortness of breath.
- SQ: Subcutaneous. This is a typical notation when noting or ordering an injection (shot) given into the fatty tissue under the skin, such as with insulin for diabetes mellitus.
T - Medical abbreviations
- T: Temperature. Temperature is recorded as part of the physical examination. It is one of the "vital signs."
- T&A: Tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy
- t.i.d.: Three times daily. As in taking medicine three times daily.
- tab: Tablet
- TAH: Total abdominal hysterectomy
- TAH: Total abdominal hysterectomy. A type of surgery to remove a woman’s uterus, Fallopian tubes, and ovaries.
- THR: Total hip replacement
- TKR: Total knee replacement
- TMJ: Tempomandibular joint
U - Medical abbreviations
- UA or u/a: Urinalysis. A UA is a typical part of a comprehensive physical examination.
- U or u: Unit. Mistaken as the number 0 or 4, causing a 10-fold overdose or greater (for example, 4U seen as "40" or 4u seen as "44"); mistaken as "cc" so the dose is given in volume instead of units (for example, 4u seen as 4cc).
- ULN: Upper limits of normal
- URI: Upper respiratory infection, such as sinusitis or the common cold
- ut dict: As directed. As in taking medicine according to the instructions that the health care professional gave in the office or in the past
- UTI: Urinary tract infection
W - Medical abbreviations
- Wt: Weight. Body weight is often recorded as part of the physical examination.
X - Medical abbreviations
- XRT: Radiotherapy (external). A type of treatment that uses radiation.
Cancerindex.org. "Medical Terminology for Cancer." Updated: Feb 01, 2014.
Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. "Acronym List."
ConsumerMedSafety.org. "Unsafe Medical Abbreviations." 2015.
Columbia University. "Pediatric Dentistry Approved Abbreviations."
Flanders University; School of Nursing and Midwifery. "Clinical communication."
Kasper, D.L., et al., eds. Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 19th Ed. United States: McGraw-Hill Education, 2015.
Pidala, J., et al. "Graft-vs-host disease following allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation." Cancer Control. 2011 Oct;18(4):268-76.
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Hemoglobin A1c TestHemoglobin A1c or HbA1c is a protein on the surface of red blood cells. The HbA1c test is used to monitor blood sugar levels in people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes over time. Normal HbA1c levels are 6% or less. HbA1c levels can be affected by insulin use, fasting, glucose intake (oral or IV), or a combination of these and other factors. High hemoglobin A1c levels in the blood increases the risk of microvascular complications, for example, diabetic neuropathy, eye, and kidney disease.
High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)
High blood pressure (hypertension) is a disease in which pressure within the arteries of the body is elevated. About 75 million people in the US have hypertension (1 in 3 adults), and only half of them are able to manage it. Many people do not know that they have high blood pressure because it often has no has no warning signs or symptoms.
Systolic and diastolic are the two readings in which blood pressure is measured. The American College of Cardiology released new guidelines for high blood pressure in 2017. The guidelines now state that blood normal blood pressure is 120/80 mmHg. If either one of those numbers is higher, you have high blood pressure.
The American Academy of Cardiology defines high blood pressure slightly differently. The AAC considers 130/80 mm Hg. or greater (either number) stage 1 hypertension. Stage 2 hypertension is considered 140/90 mm Hg. or greater.
If you have high blood pressure you are at risk of developing life threatening diseases like stroke and heart attack.
REFERENCE: CDC. High Blood Pressure. Updated: Nov 13, 2017.
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